Rules Of Qurbani On Eid Ul Adha: Some Important Masaa'il
The act of sacrificing an animal is regarded as affecting
the heart, as it is connected with righteousness, with submission to Allah,
with humbleness of the heart, and patience under sufferings. So when one
slaughters with the proper accompanying Intention and not for the sole purpose
of eating the flesh on this occasion, one is again complying with the laws in
the Holy Quran and completes yet another of the pillars of Islam. The animal
sacrificed is symbolic of the animal in man (man's nature). So, when he
slaughters, he is reminded of the necessity to eliminate that "animal
nature" which he has within him. It actually signifies the sacrifice of
the sacrificer himself, and becomes the outward symbol of his readiness to lay
down his life in the cause of the Supreme Creator of the universe.
Our Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him) confirmed this act, and always covered his head with respect during
sacrifice. He would lay the animal down and gently stroke it, then, placing his
foot on the body and uttering the words "In the name of Allah, Allah is
Great. O Allah! This is a sacrifice from You and is for You" he would
speedily severe its throat, allowing the blood to flow readily with the least
possible pain to the animal.
The sacrifice is done after the prayer is over. The chosen
animal must be free from any apparent physical defect and must be fully grown
and healthy. In the case of a goat or sheep, one suffices, but if it a camel or
cow, seven may be partners thereto.
Why Should One Make Qurbani?
In Islam, the sacrifice of an animal is legal from the
morning of the 10th to sunset of the 12th Dhu l-Hijjah, the 12th lunar month of
the Islamic calendar. On these days Muslims all over the world offer Qurbani
which means a sacrifice/ slaughter of an animal on specific days for the pleasure
of Allah. It is understood as a symbolic repetition of Abraham's sacrifice of a
ram in place of his son, a crucial notion in Judaism, Christianity and Islam
alike. Islamic preachers would use the occasion to comment on the fact that
Islam is a religion of sacrifice and use this opportunity to remind Muslims of
their duty of serving mankind with their time, effort and wealth.
Most schools of fiqh accept that the animal must be killed
according to the prohibitions of halal sacrifice and that the animal in
question must be a domesticated goat, sheep, cow or camel.
Allah says in the Qur'aan: 'It is not their flesh nor their
blood that reaches Allah; it is your piety that reaches him.' 22:37
Prophet Muhammad said: The son of Adam does not do any
action of the day of sacrifice which is more pleasing to Allah than the
sacrifice of animals; the animal will come on the Day of Resurrection with its
hair, horns and hooves (for reward). The blood certainly reaches Allah before
it falls to the ground. So make yourselves purified therewith.(Tirmizi and
Sunan ibn Majah)
Qurbani (sacrifice) is thus one of those deeds which are
assured of acceptance before being completed.
When Must Qurbani Be Made?
Qurbani or Sacrifice is carried out from the 10th of Zil-
Hijjah (i.e. from the day of Eid-ul-Adha) after the completion of the Eid
Salaah and Khutba, till sunset on the 12th of Zil- Hijjah. The times of
preference for Qurbani are the first day, i.e. the 10th of Zil-Hijjah from the
completion of the Eid Salaah, followed by the second day and lastly the third
If for some reason, animals purchased for Qurbani are not
slaughtered in the time and duration of the Qurbani period, i.e. 10th, 11th
& 12th of Zil-Hijjah, then such animals must be donated alive to charity.
Who Should Make Qurbani?
The statements below
need sources. While in some forms of Hajj, the sacrifice becomes mandatory or
compulsory, there is debate on whether it is Wajib or Nafl with Imam Abu
Hanifah maintaining it is Wajib and other jurists opining it is Nafl.
Adult Muslim male and
females that have reached puberty. A person may perform the obligation on
behalf of another sane adult person provided it is with their permission. A
person is required to make a separate sacrifice on behalf of himself and for
others that he may sacrifice for.
Is resident (muqeem)
in his home town and not on journey
Ownership of any of
the below after deduction of any debts that one may have:
- 613.35g silver
(19.71 troy ounces silver) or;
- 87.48g of gold;
- the equivalent of
612.36 grams of silver in zakatable assets such as cash, stock in trade etc
- the equivalent of
612.36 grams of silver in non zakatable assets which is in excess of one's
basic personal needs e.g. a second vehicle, a second home etc
Islamic scholars usually use the silver value as a benchmark of Nisab
Sacrifice of an
animal is a compulsory obligation every year on the occasion of Eid
al-Adha and not a once in a lifetime duty.
Those Exempted From Sacrifice
The very poor
Should any in the
above category wish to perform the sacrifice, then they may do so and this
person will gain the reward of the sacrifice.
Compulsory Sacrifice and Optional Sacrifice
It is compulsory for
a person to first make sacrifice in his own name. He may either purchase a
sheep or a goat or one-seventh share in a domesticated camel/ cow/ ox/ buffalo
or bull. Thereafter one may make (or purchase) optional sacrifice:
In the name of Muhammad
The Prophets of Allah such as Jesus, Moses
The wives and
children of Muhammad
The Companions of the Muhammad
The Jurists of Islam
The saints of Islam
It is considered
sinful in Islamic Shariah for a person to perform optional (nafil) sacrifice
and neglect the compulsory sacrifice.
The deceased benefit
from the reward of the sacrificed animal as well as those who perform this
worship on their behalf.
What Animals Must Be
Used For Qurbani?
Only the following
animals may be sacrificed for Qurbani:-
a. Goat and Sheep with a minimum of 1 year
b. Cattle with a
minimum of 2 years.
c. Camels with a
minimum of 5 years.
Each goat or sheep
suffices for Qurbani for one Muslim male or female; whereas each head of cattle
or camel could represent the Qurbani for seven Muslim males and females,
a. All seven participants have uniformity in
Niyyah (i.e. either Qurbani or Aqeeqah).
b. All seven have an equal
share, nobody is to have a larger portion than another even at the time of the distribution
of the meat.
It is permissible for
less than seven people to have shares in a camel or a head of cattle for
Qurbani; but not permissible for more than 7 people to do so.
What Type Of Defective Animals Are To Be Avoided?
The animals for Qurbani in the Name of Almighty Allah shall
be in prime condition of health and free from defects. The following defects in
animals disqualifies them from being used for Qurbani:-
Animals without ears or
more than one third of the ear is defective, partially blind (one third or
more), or totally blind animals; animals with horns broken from the root;
animals that have most or all their teeth missing; animals which have limbs
broken or used three legs to walk; animals with a third or more or their tail
Sick and emaciated animals
that lack the ability to move or walk.
Who Should Make Zabah Or Slaughter And What Is To Be
Owners of Qurbani animals,
whether male or female, who have the knowledge of making Zabah should slaughter
their own animals.
If other persons are
appointed to slaughter on their behalf, then it is better for the owners of the
Qurbani animals to be present at the place and time of slaughter.
Before slaughtering, the
following Dua should be recited: "Inni wajjahtu wajhiya lillazi fataras
samawaati walarda hanifaw wa maaa ana minal mushrikeen. Inna salaati wanusuki
wa mahyaya wamamati lillahi rabbil a'lameen. La sharika lahu wabizaalika umirtu
wa ana minal muslimeen. Allahumma minka walak."
The person should then
slaughter the animal reading: "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar."
This Dua must also be read:
"Allahumma takabalhu minni kama takabalta min habeebika Muhammadiw wa Khaleelika
Ibraheema alayhimas salaatu was salaamu."
Some Important Requirements About Zabah
The knife for Zabah has to
be sharpened to the optimum, and the slaughter should be carried out quickly
and effectively to minimise the suffering sustained by the animal.
The throat of the Qurbani
animal should be cut in a manner to ensure that the gullet, the wind pipe and
the two external jugular veins are severed.It is Makrooh to severe the entire
neck including the vertebrae. At least 3 of the four vessels mentioned above
ought to be severed to meet Shari'ah requirements of proper Zabah.
Every effort should be made
to ensure that animals are not slaughtered in the presence of other live
In the process of
slaughtering, the knife should be concealed till the moment of slaughter and
the animal should be placed such that it allows the person slaughtering the
animal to face Qibla, as this is Mustahab.
The skinning of the
slaughtered animal and dismembering of body parts should not commence until the
animal's carcase has turned
If after slaughtering an
animal it is discovered that the animal was pregnant and a live foetus appears
in the belly, then it is necessary to slaughter that foetus.
Distribution Of Qurbani Meat To Non-Muslims
Distribution of Qurbani meat or any other charity (sadqa) to
"Harbi Kafir" is not permissible at all. It is mentioned in Durr-e-Mukhtar:
"Even though a Harbi Kafir is peace-wanting, charity is unanimously not permissible."
In Behr-ul-Raiq: "According to Shar'ah, giving something to a Harbi Kafir
is not permissible, for no Sawaab can be gained through this."
Important Advice For Muslims
Many people make Qurbani on behalf of their parents,
grandparents, Prophets and Saints, and not on their behalf. By doing so, they
are neglecting their Waajib and thus become sinners through this action. Every
Muslim must first make Qurbani on their behalf first so that their Waajib is
fulfilled. Only after the Waajib is completed and if one is able to do so, can
Qurbani be made on behalf of others.
It is preferable to make Qurbani on behalf of Prophet
Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) as it is virtuous and beneficial and
has his blessings. Our Prophet Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) made
Qurbani on behalf of all the poor people of his Ummah. This shows the love that
he possessed for his Ummah. Therefore, every Muslim who is capable of making
Qurbani on behalf of others should make Qurbani on behalf of our Holy Prophet
Muhammad (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).